History of Title IX

"No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subject to discrimination under any programs or activity receiving federal financial assistance.—From the preamble to Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972"

Title IX is a section of the Educational Amendments passed by Congress in 1972. Title IX prohibits discrimination against girls and women in federally funded education, including athletic programs. It was passed in 1972 with little controversy. However, soon after the NCAA and high school administrators complained that boy’s sports would suffer if women’s sports became equally funded. Two years later regulations to implement the law were released but not put into effect until July 1975.

Under Presidents Reagan and Bush, enforcement of Title IX came to a halt. Then in a 1984 decision, Grove City v. Bell, the U.S. Supreme Court gutted Title IX saying that it did not cover entire educational institutions, only those that received federal funding. Four years later Congress passed the Civil Rights Restoration Act of 1988, this nullified the effects of the Grove City ruling by outlawing sex discrimination throughout an entire educational institution receiving federal funds. Now in collegiate athletics, there are three primary areas that determine if an institution is in compliance with Title IX.

Ali Wagner-Santa Clara University Women's Soccer



Since then, women and girls have benefited from more participation opportunities and more equitable facilities in athletics. Women who were under 10 when Title IX passed have much higher participation rates than women who grew up before Title IX. Fifty five-percent of the post-Title IX generation participated in high school sports, compared to thirty six percent of the pre-Title IX era. Because of Title IX, many women were able to receive athletic scholarships and thus the opportunity for higher education. Many women Olympic athletes credit Title IX for the opportunity to get athletic scholarships and attend college.

Title IX has opened up many opportunities for women these days. We grow up in an age now where young girls have female professional athletes as role models and desire to be just like them. Title IX has helped so many women make there place in athletics and has helped women gain a lot more of the much deserved respect they need. Title IX is a very controversial issue and many people believe that men’s athletic programs should not be penalized for the sake of women’s sports. I believe that Title IX has made a huge impact in the lives of females and will have an everlasting effect on women for years to come. Women’s sports only now have begun to get the publicity and attention that men’s sports have received for many years. Women’s sports are finally starting to really emerge thanks in much to the efforts of Title IX.