The 1890s

Park Row, 1900: World, Tribune, NYT bldgs - 2
Farmers Alliance, in Judge, 1891 - 2
Jacob Coxey, 1893
Pullman car and porter, 1894
Eugene Debs - as tyrant 1894
NAM sign, Dubuque, Iowa, by John Vachon, 1940 - 2
Ida B. Wells homes 1940

1890 - Joseph Pulitzer moved into his building on Park Row, a symbol of the New Journalism.

1890 - Creede, Colorado, became boom town when silver discovered.

1890 Nov. - Farmers Alliance won state elections and 40 seats in Congress, and long-bearded William Peffer became the first Alliance senator. Lithograph "The new Uncle Sam. How the Farmers' Alliance propose to have the government run when they get the power," by Bernhard Gillam, in Judge, Jan. 17, 1891. Man holding "farm mortgage" and facing Uncle Sam, portrayed with features frequently associated with Jewish stereotypes, who stands next to sign reading, "Your Uncle Sam will advance money on crops and make loans to farmers without interest ..."

1892 Jan. 1 - Ellis Island opened as the first federal immigration center. The New Immigration was opposed by the 1893 Immigration Restriction League.

1892 July - People's Party national convention adopted the Omaha Platform. In the Nov. election, James Weaver won over a million votes.

1892 Nov. 20 - Homestead strike ended.

1893 May 15 - Western miners organized the Western Federation of Miners (WFM) in Butte, Montana, and broke away from the AFL labor union in 1897. Big Bill Haywood led strikes at Couer d'Alene, Idaho, and Cripple Creek, Colorado.

1893 June 20 - Western railroad workers led by Eugene V. Debs founded the American Railway Union (ARU) in Chicago.

1893 May 1 - World's Columbian Exposition opened in Chicago, with a White City designed by Daniel Burnham.

1893 May 3 - Depression began with stock market decline and bank failures.

1894 - Henry Demarest Lloyd described the robber barons in his book Wealth Against Commonwealth.

1894 May 1 - Jacob Coxey led an industrial army of unemployed in a march on Washington demanding federal public works jobs. Coxey was arrested, and Richard Olney used the injunction and troops to prevent other armies from seizing railroads to get to DC. Yet 1200 walked to DC.

1894 June 26 - Pullman strike began, led by Eugene Debs of the American Railway Union that offered a new model of industrial unionism. The "Debs Revolution" was not a spontaneous strike, but a well-organized boycott led by steering committees of local unions. The General Managers Association of 26 railroads was helped by Richard Olney who issued an injunction and sent federal troops, left 13 dead in Chicago July 4, helped by 2600 deputy marshall "thugs" and led to violence in 26 states that killed 34. The strike was broken, Debs was jailed for six months and converted to socialism.

1895 Jan. 22 - National Association of Manufacturers (NAM) founded in Cincinnati, Ohio, by small manufacturers, promoted the open shop, opposed craft unionism and the AFL, rejected welfare capitalism of Morgan and Belmont's NCF, shaped public opinion.

1895 Sept. 18 - Booker T. Washington made his Atlanta Compromise speech and the Atlanta Cotton Exposition.

1896 - Plessy v. Ferguson sanctioned segregation in the New South.

1896 Sept. 12 - Bicycle parade in New York City after transcontinental race.

1896 Nov. - William McKinley defeated Willian Jennings Bryan in the presidential election.

1898 - Spanish-American War created an American empire.

1898 Apr. 8 - Ida Wells-Barnett petitioned President McKinley to act on the lynching of federal postmaster Baker in Lake City, South Carolina. She used newspaper "The Free Speech and Headlight" to publicize the lynching of a store owner Tom Moss in Memphis in 1892, and to expose the myth of lynching as a defense of white womanhood. She travelled to England, then settled in Chicago and founded the Women's Era Club, the first civic organization for African-American women. In 1895 she published "A Red Record" that documented 10,000 lynchings in the last 20 years, and she married Ferdinand Barnett. Wells and her efforts would result in the founding in 1909 of the Committe of 40 that created the NAACP, and in 1930 of the Association of Southern Women for the Prevention of Lynching (ASWPL).

1899 - Open Door in China.


revised 2/1/07 by Steven Schoenherr | 1890s links