The Great Depression
According to Chapter 8, the Depression was "an economic crisis that proved to be the most severe test of the American people and their institutions since the Civil War." As the nation's elite "declined in public esteem, new ideas and new forces moved to the forefront."
- unemployment at 25%, bankruptcies peaked 1932, 5000 bank failures, high Smoot-Hawley tariff, Austrian bank collapse, devalued currencies off gold standard
- worse for big cities, blue collar, children, married women workers
- "Business Girls in the Big City " March of Time, Dec. 24, 1936
- lost jobs, houses, "hooverville"
- "migration of despair" of hoboes, Woody Guthrie and American Roots Music
- "Mexican Americans were among the foremost victims of this revived racism."
- Cesar Chavez and Barrio Logan
- New York boycott of small Chinese laundries 1932
- drought in South 1930, lynchings increased, Scottsboro boys
- "Washington, D.C. was still a segregated, sleepy southern town"
- "Hoover embodied the Horatio Alger myth"
- voluntary cooperation, some government aid, "but Hoover's activism coexisted uneasily with a persistent conservatism"
- only 25% jobless received aid
- Frank Murphy in Detroit 1930, feeding stations, thrift gardens, but ran out of money
- "moral capitalism" expected of the elite
- Moral Man and Immoral Society book by Niebuhr
- end of great urban migrations of 1920s
- organic farming of Scott and Helen Nearing in Vermont
- rent parties at end of the month in Harlem
- Unemployed Citizens' League in Seattle
- communist "unemployment councils" moved evictees back into homes
- communist Sharecroppers' Union in Alabama shootouts
- "The stark confrontations of the early 1930s helped to radicalize thousands of impoverished men and women who later built potent industrial unions and social movements."
- 2 great protests of 1932: Ford Hunger March, Bonus March
- "the foundation for the powerful, politically intrusive state"
- "liberalism came into its own as an ideology of governance, an electoral coalition, and a social and cultural force."
- "came to embody the state a friend and protector"
- wife Eleanor "the real mother to a nation"
- Franklin Delano Roosevelt Memorial in Washington DC
- Harry Hopkins, Henry Wallace, Harold Ickes, Felix Frankfurter
- Fireside Chats on radio, hundred days
- Liberal Response and First New Deal 1933-1934 - bank holiday, FDIC, SEC
- FERA, CCC, CWA
- "replicated the racial, regional, and gender divisions that plagued the nation."
- Second New Deal 1935-39
AAA and NRA
- parity payments, crop reduction, food processing tax, plow-up
- STFU in Arkansas sought direct parity payments
- "King Cotton's Slaves," March of Time, Aug. 7, 1936
- Wallace purged radicals from AAA in 1935 - led to Farm Security Administration
- NIRA section 7a "the right to organize and bargain collectively through representatives of their own choosing"
South and West
- "were virtually undeveloped countries"
- TVA, REA, PWA
- Oakland bridge, Pasadena freeway, LA schools
- John Collier and Indian Reorganization Act ended allotment
- "the amazingly rapid rebirth of the United Mine Workers" under John L. Lewis
- "Labor versus Labor" March of Time, Sept. 30, 1936
- Amalgamated Clothing Workers and ILGWU organized garmet industry
- NLB required secret-ballot elections
- Rose Pesotta organized ILGWU in LA
- Wyndham Mortimer organized White Motor in Cleveland
- Douglas Lincoln MacMahon led Transit Workers Union
- James Carey was first president of the UE
- three great strikes in 1934
- Battle of Toledo at the Auto-Lite picket line
- Minneapolis truckers vs. Citizens' Alliance
- San Francisco longshoremen and general strike
- "In each case, radicals defied conservative AFL leaders and obilized thousands of working people in concerted, militant action. Workers developed innovative tactics and countered force with force."
- helped create the UAW, Teamsters, ILWU
- failures: California pickers, East Coast textile strike
- criminal syndicalism act in California used to imprison leaders of groups that sought a change in industrial ownership by force
- biggest strike of 1934 - 376,000 of United Textile Worker's Union against "stretch-out" added looms, but leadership gave in and "humble down"
- American Liberty league 1934 by Raskob, DuPont, Sloan
- Associated Farmers in California
- Radical Response
- Huey Long 1934 Share Our Wealth plan and clubs
- Charles Coughlin the Detroit radio priest of "social Catholicism"
- Francis Townsend pension plan in Long Beach
- Upton Sinclair EPIC movement in Californa's Democratic party
- Father Divine in Harlem - March of Time Feb. 14, 1936
- Communist Popular Front strategy
- Minnesota Farmer-Labor party
- Wisconsin Progressive Party reborn by LaFollettes
- Supreme Court Schecter "sick chicken" decision May 27, 1935
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