Newsreels 1945 January-July (silent)

1945/01/04 - Congress Convenes (1) 79th Congress Opens - "Washington, DC: The new congress convenes after various personalities are greeted on the steps of the capitol. From Idaho, Senator Glen Taylor and family sing "The Senatorial Blues" - they can't find a place to live." (silent except sound for song); (2) Poles & Reds Free Lublin - "After the Russians and a detachment of Polish troops viciously attack Lublin, where thousands of defenceless Poles had been massacred by the Nazis, they enter the Polish city." (sound); (3) Nab Nazi Saboteurs - "The F.B.I. apprehends William Colpaugh, an American, and Erich Gimpel, a Nazi, both of whom had graduated from Nazi saboteur schools in Europe, then landed in Maine by submarine. Their equipment included a short wave radio, forged credentials, Colt automatics, a camera, and $60,000 in American currency." (silent). (partial newsreel) SOURCE: 200 Universal 18-361 National Archives, College Park MD

1945/01/08 - Nazi Border Towns Hit By Yanks (1) "Yanks near Strasbourg - Yank planes, tanks, artillery and infantry coordinate their attack to capture Hagenau and Bischweiler, France." (silent); (2) De Gaulle in Moscow - "France's strong man, General Chas. de Gaulle, arrives in Moscow to sign a mutual assistance pact with the Soviets." meets Molotov (silent); (3) 3-Decker Pullmans - "Pullman, IL: Now it's the Coach-Sleeper, a 3 decker pullman. The aisle is one one side, the 3-tier compartments on the other. A bevy of beauties finds these coach-sleepers to be more than comforatable." (brief scene, silent). (partial newsreel) SOURCE: 200 Universal 18-362 National Archives, College Park MD

1945/01/11 - (1) Flying Angels A Major Role In War Front - "New Guinea: At forward positions, evacuation nurses supervise the transfer of wounded into huge planes, then care for them en route to ambulance bases. In off hours, the 'home life' of the nurses is seen to be that of any normal girl." (silent). (partial newsreel) SOURCE: 200 Universal 18-363-1 National Archives, College Park MD

1945/01/18 - Japs Routed In Burma (1) "The Capture of Bhambo, Burma - The chinese 38th Division (American trained and equipped) conducts a 28-day siege of this vital Jap base. Equipped with 75mm howitzers, 60 and 81mm mortars, and other modern weapons, and supported by hard hitting P-47 dive bombers, they exterminate the resisting Japs. When Gen. Daniel Sultan, American commander, enters Bhamo he sees Jap corpses buring, and huge quantities of captures Jap equipment. Another tremendous step is taken in opening the new India-China supply road." planes bomb targets on ground, scenes of burning body, wreckage, Burma Road; (2) War In Italy Bows To Ice - "Snow complicates things for the G.I.'s in Italy, especially for the drivers of the huge military truck trains." scenes of truck sliding on icy road; (3) Celebrities Launch March Of Dimes - "In Washington, DC, Eleanor Roosevelt donates the first dime in that city's annual infantile paralysis campaign. In NYC Chairman Basil O'Connor opens the drive as movie stars lend their support." (silent) (partial newsreel) SOURCE: 200 Universal 18-365 National Archives, College Park MD

1945/01/22 - 14th Airforce Quits Kweilin (1) "Kwangsi Province in Southern China proved to be the scene of history-making events during recent months. The U.S. 14th Air Force operated from there, and the Japs had determined to seize it in pursuance of their master plan to sever China. Jap power forces a succession of heart-breaking retreats. Airports are blown up, the Chinese put the torch to their own towns, railways are swamped, roads are choked, the retreat seems undending. Now however, the tide has turned. The Ledo-Burma road is opened, and the 14th operates from impregnable airbases." scene of U.S. flag lowered (silent); (2) Jap Airbase in Philippines Hit By Yanks - "Bombing of Palawan Island - U.S. Liberator bombers neutralize the Puerto Princesa air field with 10 tons of bombs, thereby adding momentum to MacArthur's spectacular advance in the Philippines." (silent); (3) 1000 Dollar Bookworm - "Verona, NJ: Mr. Wickel of radio fame, frantically goes through 17,000 gift books looking for the missing portion of his thousand dollar bill. He finds it, and the books go to service canteens and clubs." (silent). (partial newsreel) SOURCE: 200 Universal 18-366 National Archives, College Park MD

1945/02/05 - MacArthur Makes Good His Promise (1) "We turn the calendar back to January of 1941 and watch the Japs engulf the Philippines, bomb Manila, the open city, and swagger as they capture the remaining Americans on Corregidor. From his new post as Military Commander in Australia we hear Gen. macArthur thunder the ominous warning to the Japs,"I will return." Most recently, we find him with Admiral Nimitz, pouring over maps as a gigantic armada sails on such a mission. Ships of all descriptions, including giant carriers with their hundreds of war birds, are in this fleet. Under a flack-filled sky preparations are made to land troops at Lingayen. Landing boats race shoreward, and in one of them is General Douglas MacArthur. He wades ashore, his promise is fulfilled. And his mechanized army heads for Manila." scenes include plane crash on carrier deck (silent except MacArthur speaks "I shall return") ; (2) B-29 Crews Hit Burma Rail Bridge - "After the ferry command has brought in thousands of 50-gallon drums of gasoline, Chinese troops spill the contents into a unique storage system from which the B-29s refuel. Then the huge ships of the 20th Bomber Command, fly to Siam and blast a vital Jap rail bridge." (silent); (3) War Shipping Tied Up By Icy Hudson - "NYC: One of the most severe winters in years has choked the Hudson River with ice, keeping the Coast Guard busy, clearing the route for ocean-going ships." (silent). (partial newsreel) SOURCE: 200 Universal 18-370 National Archives, College Park MD

1945/02/08 - Rough Road To Mandalay (1) "Almost half of Burma has been wrested from the Japs! Tough British armies fighting their way from the northwest India-Burma border are shown combating mud, mountains, swamps and torrential rivers. Mortars and field artillery aids their progress, while Flying Jeeps evacuate the British wounded." (silent); (2) When Four Become Six - "Galveston, Texas: The famous Badgett quadruplets celebrate their 6th birthday with a 'cut-up' party at the Club for Allied Seamen." silent); (3) Bonnets For Spring - "NYC: The exclusive spring hats which Walter Florell designs are something to see. There are ribbon hats, flower hats, sailor hats, and the models!!" (silent); (4) Bitter War On West Front - "The pressure is relieved on Strasbourg as the Yanks re-capture Wingen. When the bewildered natives return to their Alsatian village, they break down in their fear and sorrow. In Strasbourg, returning inhabitants quickly buy newspapers to learn the whereabouts of the hated Huns. The fortitude of Nantes, the coastal city, is rewarded as Gen. de Gaulle bestows a medal on the city. Then he reviews a newly formed French Division. From the air Malmedy, in the von Runstedt bulge area, is seen to be in ruins. Aground here, American corpses are unearthed. These are the 200 Yanks who were mutilated and slain by the S.S. troops when their offensive was retarded. Nazi prisoners are shown the infamous work of their fellow Germans." De Gaulle scene includes French commentary, but no other sound. (partial newsreel) SOURCE: 200 Universal 18-371 National Archives, College Park MD

1945/02/19 - U.S. Tightens Control Over Philippines (1) "Advancing Yanks pass wrecked Jap equipment and our tanks and field artillery continue to blaze away at skulking Japs. Dead Nips are all over the ground. General MacArthur confers with some of his Generals and the advance presses on. In a compound nearby are herded some rare specimens - Jap Prisoners. To guard against their treachery, they are forced to stand in an awkward position while they are searched." scenes included dead Japanese, prisoners searched, MacArthur walks, "Jap soldier gets blasted" (silent) (2) Local - combat footage, soldiers marching, steam shovel, dump trucks (silent). (partial newsreel) SOURCE: 200 Universal 18-374 National Archives, College Park MD

1945/02/26 - Canadians Take Cleve (1) Local - combat, tanks, prisoners (silent). (partial newsreel) SOURCE: 200 Universal 18-376 National Archives, College Park MD

1945/03/05 - Iwo Jima Invasion! (1) "First Pictures - U. S. Navy, Coast Guard and Marine Corps combine forces to engage in battle reputed to be the toughest in the history of the U.S. Republic. Elements of the U.S. Pacific Fleet, the world's largest striking force, concentrates its fire power on Iwo Jima, a speck of an island, eight miles in area. Iwo, located midway between Guam and Tokyo, bristling with 25,000 cave dwelling Jap troops, is pounded by dare-devil carrier pilots, 16-inch shells, cruiser and destroyer fire, and rockets. Then hundreds of landing boats and amphibious craft race in, under a huge smoke screen and behind curtains of rocket fire. Enemy shells fall everywhere. Flame-throwing tanks climb the volcanic ash embankments and clean out some emplacements and block houses for the Marine divisions who are linned to the ground by the withering defense fire. Air Field No. 1 is captured, as dramatic close-up battle action is viewed through the slit of an advancing tank. Back on the ships, a few husky Jap prisoners are hauled on board. Tons of supplies go ashore. Secretary of Navy Forrestal conferes with Gen. 'Howling Mad' Smith, Fleet marine Force Commander. At terric cost, the Iwo Jima landings are secure." scenes include a map of invasion, planes attack Iwo Jima, some crashes, transfer of man ship to ship, Navy guns fire, landing craft head for beach, fighting seen through window of vehicle, Marines on beach (silent). (partial newsreel) SOURCE: 200 Universal 18-378 National Archives, College Park MD

1945/03/08 - Our Wounded Come Home (1) "NYC: An Army Transportation Corps Troop Transport brings 811 wounded G.I.'s home, including 135 litter cases. Two of their top thrills are seeing Miss Liberty, and getting a glass of milk." (silent); (2) Aviation In The News - Allied Jet Planes - The British Gloster Meteor, powered with a single turbo-jet motor, is highly maneuverable and is faster than a Nazi buzz bomb. The American P-59, developed by Bell Aircraft and G.E., uses twin jet engines to rise almost vertically to tremendous heights at tremendous speed." (3) B-29 Assembly Line - "Seattle, Washington: A trip through one of the vast Boeing plants shows the huge B-29s in various stages of their assembly. Entrance into one of the superfortresses shows many of it features including the 35-foot 'crawl tube' between the pressurized compartments, and the operation of central gunfire-control." (silent). (partial newsreel) SOURCE: 200 Universal 18-379 National Archives, College Park MD

1945/03/12 - Corregidor Avenged! (1) "American planes drone over Corregidor, pin-pointing their bombs on Jap positions, as guns on U.S. warships hurl tons of shells into the same targets. Troop Transport planes appear above mid-island and the bombardment shifts to the shore lines. The 503rd Paratroopers pour out of the ships and fall to the ground. They quickly group and clean out the Japs from the high areas. The amphibious troops come in at San Jose bay behind a curtain of bursting shells. Tanks, light artillery and heavy mortars shatter Jap-held buildings. The two infantry forces combine their attack under Gen. Charles P. Hall, and the victory is complete." scenes of American forces fighting in Philippines (silent); (2) Midwest Ravaged By Floods - "When the raging Ohio River and its tributaries overflow their banks, they cause the worst flood damage which the mid-West has known in seven years. At Cincinnati the river rises to 70 ft., 17 ft. avbove flood stage. Louisville, Ky., viewed from Troop Carrier planes, has vast neighborhoods completely flooded, in instances the rooftops of homes are covered by the flood waters. Trains are stalled. Ten are killed in the disaster and property damage exceeds $10,000,000." (silent). (partial newsreel) SOURCE: 200 Universal 18-380 National Archives, College Park MD

1945/03/26 - Lord Athlone Visits U.S. (1) in car with FDR, newsreel cameras crank away, White House exterior (silent). (partial newsreel) SOURCE: 200 Universal 18-384 National Archives, College Park MD

1945/04/02 - (1) Canada enters world radio arena (silent until man speaks into CBC microphone); (2) Okinawa Invaded - "Giant ships of the U.S. Fifth Fleet, immense new battleships and huge aircraft carriers, plunge through very heavy seas to get in position for the air assault on the Ryuku Islands, less than 350 miles from Japan proper. The carrier planes take off and soon they are destroying vital airstrips on Okinawa, ships in harbors and other targets. Missions accomplished, they return to their flat tops to find a furious battle going on between the fleet and swarms of Jap planes. Exceedingly accurate anti-aircraft fire sends a succession of Jap planes spinning into the sea." (silent). (partial newsreel) SOURCE: 200 Universal 18-386 National Archives, College Park MD

1945/04/12 - Roosevelt Is Dead! Special Release (1) FDR's presidency reviewed from1933 to 1945, ending with swearing in of Truman (silent except some clips of FDR speaking). (complete newsreel) SOURCE: 200 Universal 18-389 National Archives, College Park MD

1945/04/19 - Coolie Transport In China (1) "Labor teams of coolies in their human harnesses, pull junks through torturous rapids in Chinese rivers. Other coolies bring in hundreds of heavy U.S. gas drums for re-fueling." (silent); (2) Ernie Pyle Killed by Jap Sniper - "Ernie Pyle, the G.I.'s favorite writer and comrade, is killed on Ie, Jap island off Okinawa. Our record shows him very recently, modestly living with the doughboys on Okinawa." (silent); (3) Allies Sweep Through Reich - "Supreme Commander Eisenhower personally observes the attacks of his armies. he sees terrific artillery bombardments. U.S. infantrymen advance into towns, and blast out Nazi snipers. White flags are everywhere. The German military road system of super-highways, the Autobahns, are utilized to race Yank infantry into advanced attacks, and as impoverished air fields for light observation planes. Miles of wrecked and burning Nazi equipment are passed. Rail lines are torn and twisted, munition factories are utterly destroyed. And the flood of Nazi prisoners continues to mount to staggering proportions." (silent); (4) air sea rescue plane (silent). (partial newsreel) SOURCE: 200 Universal 18-391 National Archives, College Park MD

1945/04/23 - Canadians Return to Vimy Ridge (1) memorial to one of the greatest battles in Canadian history fought in April 1917 by all 4 Canadian divisions in Europe for World War I, near the town of Arras in northern France (sound narration in French). (partial newsreel) SOURCE: 200 Universal 18-392 National Archives, College Park MD

1945/04/26 - Princess joins ATS (1) Elizabeth in uniform (silent) (2) Canadian local - babies and child care (silent). (partial newsreel) SOURCE: 200 Universal 18-393 National Archives, College Park MD

1945/05/21 - American Day Celebration (1) "New York: 'I Am An American Day' is celebrated in Central Park's Mall. A mammoth crowd, one and a half million strong is on hand. Everybody, including Mayor La Guardia, is present on this great patriotic occasion." (silent); (2) Carrier Refuses To Die - " U.S.S. Franklin (1st Pictures By Official Navy Cameramen) Fighting a terrific battle sixty miles off the Japanese coast, the 27,000 ton carrier, USS Franklin is struck by two, five hundred pound armor-piercing bombs released by an enemy pilot. Immediately, loaded planes on the flight and hangar decks burst into flame, bombs, rockets and machine gun ammunition explode, turning the great war vessel into a dangerous, raging inferno. Only the superhuman efforts of her crew save the gallant ship from utter destruction. Eleven hundred men are lost or injured. Many of the survivors owe their lives to the bravery of the chaplain, Lieut. Commander O'Callahan. The Japs reported the Franklin sunk, but the battered and torn ship is safe in the Brooklyn Navy Yard after a twelve thousand mile voyage, via the Panama Canal. The heroic survivors are fittingly honored after suffering one of the most terrific ordeals in naval history." (silent). (partial newsreel) SOURCE: 200 Universal 18-400 National Archives, College Park MD

1945/05/24 - Capture of Baguio (1) "Baguio, P.I.: The summer capital of this American possession falls to American troops as the last pockets of Japs are being wiped out in the final phase of the war on these islands." (silent); (2) Inside a Free Europe - "As the Allies cleaned up in Europe, many incidents are photographed and released for the first time. Flensburg, Germany: Admiral karl Doenitz, the last representative of the German government is held by the Allies. These are the latest pictures of the U-Boat chief to reach this country. The Netherlands: Another prize capture is that of Seyss Inquart, the quisling of Holland, who is taken by the Canadians as he attempts to flee. Copenhagen: With Denmark freed from Nazi control, King Christian is cheered by a half a million people as Parliament is convened for the first time in five years. General Montgomery receives an ovation, too, as he visits the capital." (silent); (3) Cadet Nurses Needed - "There are sixty thousand opportunities for young women in the nursing profession. That's the number of cadet trainees the government wants to teach." (silent except a nurse speaks, calls for more nurses) (4) Thrilling U-boat Capture - "Off the African Coast: In true Naval tradition a submarine is tracked down and captured 150 miles west of Cape Blanco. This is the first time since 1815 that we have boarded and captured a foreign enemy man-of-war." (silent) (5) Nation's Highest Honor - "Washington, DC: Before a joint session of Congress, the president awards the Medal of Honor to Sgt. Jake W. Lindsey. Then Mr. Truman, in a brief speech, pays tribute to the serviceman." (silent). (complete newsreel) SOURCE: 200 Universal 18-401 National Archives, College Park MD

1945/06/07 - Army Tests New Type Helicopter (1) "Upper Darby, PA: The Kellett Aircraft Corp. unveils its new experimental ship, XR-8, built for the U.S. Army. Using two intermeshing rotors, the ship can fly any direction desired." (silent); (2) Roundup in Europe - Flensberg, Germany: Heinrich Himmler, head of the Nazi S.S. troops, and killer of millions, swallows poison while British troops are examining him after his arrest. Oslo, Norway: Vidkun Quisling, the arch traitor of modern times, goes on trial for his life, before his Norwegian countrymen. Copenhagen, Denmark: Germany surrenders 70 midget submarines, some of which carried two torpedoes in an underslung position, the others being one-man, one-torpedo types. Bremerhaven: Canadian troops discover the luxury liner Europa tied up in port in seaworthy condition. it is expected that in three months the vessel will put to sea, under the Stars and Stripes, with Capt. Oskar Scharf, her peacetime skipper, aboard." (silent). (partial newsreel) SOURCE: 200 Universal 18-405 National Archives, College Park MD

1945/06/21 - Newsreel intro (silent); (1) Gotham Roars Welcome to Eisenhower - "In the greatest welcome ever accorded a hero, 4,000,000 people scream themselves hoarse in paying tribute to the homespun American who headed the armies who won the greatest war in history. Riding through thirty-seven miles of the city's streets, 'The Smile' accepted his honors modestly. From mid-morning, when he landed at the airport, it was a busy day for the General. First came a parade from the Battery to City Hall where he received the city's gold medal and honorary citizenship. From here, through cheering throngs, he was driven to the Mayor's mansion for lunch and then to the Polo Grounds for a baseball game. In the evening, he attended a dinner in his honor at the Waldorf-Astoria. West Point, NY: Thirty years after his graduation from the Military Academy, the General of the Army returns to his alma mater to receive a deep-felt tribute from the cadet corps." scenes of Ike in New York, waves from motorcade, tickertape from skyscrapers (silent); (2) 14,000 Vets Home on the Queen Mary - "New York: The 'Queen Mary,' a war veteran with honors of her own, steams into the harbor with more than fourteen thousand aboard. Most of the American troops are due to be shipped to the Pacific after furloughs." (silent); (3) Thrills in the Air - "Palisades park, NJ: The Berosinis, famed aerial act, give us a close-up of how easy it looks. Well, from where we're sitting it looks easy, but aloft you get a different viewpoint." scenes of circus performers on high wire (silent). (partial newsreel) SOURCE: 200 Universal 18-409 National Archives, College Park MD

1945/06/28 - MacArthur Tours Freed Philippines (1) "Mindoro, P.I.: General Douglas MacArthur is met by President of the Commonwealth, Sergio Osmena as he arrives on a tour of the liberated islands while the General's wife visits the wounded. General MacArthur also accompanies a task force in the invasion of Labuan, off the coast of Borneo." scenes of combat on Philippines, naval guns, MacArthur with troops (silent). (partial newsreel) SOURCE: 200 Universal 18-411 National Archives, College Park MD

1945/07/12 - Captive Japs Return With Our Troops (1) "NYC: Huge convoy brings in 10,000 Canadians and 25,000 Yanks in record arrival day. 53 Japanese diplomats who were collared when Germany fell, arrive in U.S. on their way to internment." (silent); (2) Eisenhower Decorates FDR's Grave - "Hyde Park, NY: Gen. Eisenhower places a wreath at the grave of his ex-Commander In Chief, in the presence of Mrs. Franklin Roosevelt." (silent). (partial newsreel) SOURCE: 200 Universal 18-415 National Archives, College Park MD

1945/07/16 - Destroyers Survive Jap Bomb Attack (1) "When waves of Jap suicide planes approach the USS Newcomb and the USS Leutze, the destroyers fill the sky with flak to ward off the murderous attacks. Some of the treacherous suicide planes get through however, and deal blows to the two valiant destroyers which would sink ordinary ships. None the less, the two vessels are towed to advance repair bases, to be made ready to return to tbattle again." (silent); (2) Huge Floating Drydock at Pacific Base - "Floating repair drydocks are revealed as one of the means by which the U.S. Navy is hanging up its string of victories in the Pacific." (silent); (3) Kickless Army Gun - "Fort Benning GA: The Infantry School reveals new 57mm and 75mm kickless and portable rifles which will make G.I.'s particularly effective against tanks, pillboxes and caves." (silent); (4) Postwar Jeep for Civilians - "Toledo, Ohio: Willys unveils the civilian jeep which will serve as a tractor, light truck, passenger car, and independent power unit." (silent). (partial newsreel) SOURCE: 200 Universal 18-416 National Archives, College Park MD

1945/07/26 - Churchill Defeated (1) Clement Attlee New PM - "Major Clement R. Attlee, leader of the British Labor party, is commissioned by King George VI, to form a Labor Government after the Labor party decisively defeats Churchill's Conservative Party, in the first general election Great Britain has had in ten years." (sound); (2) Truman Aides Sworn In - "Fred M. Vinson is sworn in as Secretary of the Treasury by Justice Groner as Henry Morgenthau, Jr. stands by. Ex-Federal Loan Administrator John W. Snyder is sworn in as Director of War Mobilization and Reconversion." (silent); (3) Agriculture Head Urges Home Canning - "Clinton P. Anderson, Sec. of Agriculture, urges all American families to can as much food as possible for use this winter." (silent); (4) Floods Sweep New Jersey - "When the Passaic River burst out of its banks it created the worst flood conditions in New Jersey in 42 years. War plants are closed and traffic is completely disrupted." (silent); (5) Nazi Hangs For Murder - "For mudering a Yank flyer who had parachuted to earth at Preist, Germany, a Nazi war criminal is hung on the gallows until dead." (silent); (6) Allies Take Balikpapan - "Aboard a light cruiser, General MacArthur observes his task force bombard Balikpapan, Borneo, with heavy guns and waves of rockets. When the Jap defenses are sufficiently crumbled, the veteran Australian 7th Division goes ashore, using flame throwers to finish off the Japs. And clouds of smoke fill the sky as huge refineries blaze furiously." scenes include Japanese soldier on fire (silent). (complete newsreel) SOURCE: 200 Universal 18-419 National Archives, College Park MD

1945/07/30 - Bomber Hits Skyscraper In Heavy Fog (1) "A B-25 Mitchell bomber crashes through the fog into the 79th floor of the world's tallest building, killing thirteen and injuring many others." (silent) (2) GI Joe is Millionaire for a Day - "Nice, France: G.I.'s on a 7-day furlough from Germany, live the "Life of Reilly" in palatial hotels, on the beaches, and in pleasure boats." (silent); (3) Help Wanted on Railroads - "Redeploying U.S. troops from Europe and moving thousands of tons of material in record time, is giving American railroads the largest job ever assigned to them. More rail workers are needed, now." (silent); (4) U.S. Ships Fight Off Jap Planes - "The USS Nevada, while taking part in operations off Okinawa, is attacked by a Jap dive bomber. Flak and streams of tracer bullets fill the sky, but the suicide pilot crashes into the veteran battle wagon. Off Formosa, the U.S. Third Fleet engages in a terrific air-sea battle. Two Jap dive bombers single out the USS Ticonderoga and successfully crash into the carrier. In both cases the fires are quickly extinguished, the wreckage cleared away, and the ships return to action within several hours." scenes of kamikaze planes (silent); (5) Try This On Your Bike - "Palisades Park, NJ: Peejay Ringens hurtles down a narrow incline on his bicycle, then flies off the bike into a tank of water which is 3 ft. deep. And he comes up smiling." (silent). (complete newsreel) SOURCE: 200 Universal 18-420 National Archives, College Park MD

This DVD37 includes 2 hours of Universal Newsreels reproduced from reference cassettes at the National Archives, College Park MD, and is available from the University of San Diego Bookstore.
revised 9/24/07 by Steven Schoenherr | Universal Newsreels on DVD