Truman, Churchill, Stalin met in a suburb of Berlin for the Potsdam Conference July 17-Aug. 2
Big 3 at Potsdam, color photo from FDRL
Truman came on the USS Augusta that FDR used for the 1941 Atlantic Conference
no agreement on Poland's western boundary but Lublin government allowed to expel 9 million Germans from eastern Poland
Germany to be administered as single economic unit by Allied Control Council under Lucius Clay, but Stalin sealed all land access to East Germany
Stalin allowed to take 25% of West German industry in exchange for food, coal
Nazi leaders to be tried as war criminals at Nuremberg
Korea to be divided
Potsdam Declaration of August 1 provided:
- "a Council composed of the Foreign Ministers of the United Kingdom, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, China, France, and the United States... shall normally meet in London which shall be the permanent seat of the joint Secretariat which the Council will form... As its immediate important task, the Council shall be authorized to draw up, with a view to their submission to the United Nations, treaties of peace with Italy, Rumania, Bulgaria, Hungary and Finland, and to propose settlements of territorial questions outstanding on the termination of the war in Europe."
- "The purposes of the occupation of Germany by which the Control Council shall be guided are... the complete disarmament and demilitarization of Germany and the elimination or control of all German industry that could be used for military production."
- "War criminals and those who have participated in planning or carrying out Nazi enterprises involving or resulting in atrocities or war crimes shall be arrested and brought to judgment."
- "All members of the Nazi Party who have been more than nominal participants in its activities and all other persons hostile to Allied purposes shall be removed from public and semi-public office, and from positions of responsibility in important private undertakings."
- "for the time being, no central German Government shall be established"
- "During the period of occupation Germany shall be treated as a single economic unit. "
- "Payment of Reparations should leave enough resources to enable the German people to subsist without external assistance."
- "The Three Powers note that the Polish Provisional Government of National Unity, in accordance with the decisions of the Crimea Conference, has agreed to the holding of free and unfettered elections as soon as possible on the basis of universal suffrage and secret ballot"
- "Allied troops should be withdrawn immediately from Tehran"
- "We call upon the government of Japan to proclaim now the unconditional surrender of all Japanese armed forces, and to provide proper and adequate assurances of their good faith in such action. The alternative for Japan is prompt and utter destruction."
Stalin was told on July 24 of A-bomb test July 23 at Trinity
Churchill lost British election July 28 to Labor's Clement Attlee
Council of Foreign Ministers would meet to draft final peace treaties, but U.S. would withdraw.
Stalin refused to hold elections in occupied East Europe
"trouble spots" appeared - map from Time 1945/05
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