Russian Repatriation

over 2 million Russians from Europe and the U.S. were sent back to Russia

2 kinds of repatriates:

  1. civilians - 1.3m
    • had surrendered to Ger. against Stalin's orders
  2. military groups - .7m
    • .5m joined German army to overthrow Stalin - were traiters, e.g. Gen. Vlasov's "Russian Liberation Army" for Hitler
    • many of 5m Cossacks in South Russia were used by Germans ag. Tito
    • 50,000 Cossacks in south Austria - returned to Stalin by British
    • Croatian pro-fascist "Ustasha" (anti-communist Pavelic) vs. Tito - Croats killed 600,000 Serbs & Jews at Jasenovac death camp - killed with axes & clubs, bodies into Sava River to float by Serbian capital of Belgrade - 200,000 Croats killed at Bleiburg by Tito's Serbs
    • Belarus Brigade (1982 book Belarus Secret by John Loftus) - pro-Hitler Byelorussians who helped Hitler since 1941 - killed 250,000 Jews then switched to help Allies in 1944 on Western front - many recruited by U.S. mil intell - smuggled into U.S. - settled in South River, N.J. - became "freedom fighters" (Stalin did same - planted agents in flow of refugees to West - "Operation Omaha" dossiers compiled on possible agents)
    • Yalta definition of Soviet citizen excluded pre-1939 emigres - not repatriated
    • but Brit repatriated all Cossacks, incl old emigre Gen. Pannwitz & 18,000
    • Brit searched Drau Valley for fleeing Cossacks - 20,000 deported
    • most died in 10-yr labor camps, revealed in Solzhenitsin's '74 Gulag Archipelago
    • Med. commander Harold Alexander sought to help and coop w/ USSR
U.S. repatriated Russians from U.S. until suspended by Ike Oct. 1945

Dec. 20 compromise - only Soviet citizens who actively collab'd w/ Germans to be repatriated, not civilian refugees

May 1947 - last repatriations from Europe

The Last Secret by Nicholas Bethell 1974 and Victims of Yalta by Brit-born Nikolai Tolstoy, relative of Leo, in 1978

March 6, 1982 - Yalta Victims Memorial fountain dedicated in London on Thurloe Square opposite the Victoria and Albert Museum


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