1936 - General Metaxas appointed prime minister by King George, established right-wing dictatorship.

1940 - Mussolini's forces attacked Greece from Italian-held Albania, but were repelled.

1941 - Metaxas died. German army entered Athens April 27 and occupied Greece. King George II and his government fled to Egypt. In September, Communist Party of Greece ( KKE) founded the National Liberation Front (EAM) and its military arm, the Greek National Liberation Army (Ethnikos Laikos Apeleftherotikos Stratos, or ELAS). The ELAS opposed other resistance movements, especially the the Greek National Republican League (EDES) led by Col. Napoleon Zervas, and the anti-monarchist National and Social Liberation (EKKA), led by Col. Dimitrios Psaros.

1942 - The ELAS with 40,000 partisans and a small group of British SOE agents led the resistance against the German occupation. "In November of 1942 Greek fighters and British soldiers who have been parachuted in to direct the resistance, destroy the Gorgopotamos Viaduct railroad bridge on the Thessaloniki-Athens railway line. It is the first organised attack in occupied Greece on Axis forces and the most spectacular act of sabotage in occupied Europe up to that time. It is also the first and the only time that the Andarte forces of EDES and ELAS fight together." (Barrett)

1943 - More than 100,000 Greeks died in famine during the German occupation. The Greek War Relief Association in the U.S. sent funds. After Britain lifted its blockade, the Red Cross sent ships of food.

1944 - British and Greek forces combined in September under Gen. Robert Scobie to force Nazi withdrawal. British troops occupied Athens Oct. 13. With backing from Britain, Georgios Papandreou became prime minister. Communists protested. Tensions rose with sporadic violence. Gen. Scobie declared the ELAS dissolved Dec. 1. Civil war began Dec. 3 and the ELAS gained control of Athens by Dec. 12. The 4th Infantry Division from Italy regained control of Athens. Churchill arrived in Athens Dec. 24 but failed to persuade the ELAS to stop the war.

1945 - Scobie declared a ceasefire Jan. 15 and the KKE agreed to the Varzika Agreement of February 9 that demobilized the ELAS.

1946 - Royalist parties won elections, restored monarchy. ELAS reorganized itself as the Democratic Army of Greece (DSE) Ensuing civil war ended in 1949 with defeat of communist forces.

1952 - New constitution declared Greece a parliamentary democracy with a monarch as head of state. Greece joined Nato.    


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