Conferences of the Allied Grand Strategy

Argentia Bay (Atlantic Conference), Aug. 9-12, 1941.
Conferees: Churchill, Roosevelt.
Main result: After the July Threshhold FDR agreed to increase aid to England; the meeting resulted in the Atlantic Charter

FDR and Churchill finally meet,
from FDRL - and 1

Moscow, Sept. 29-Oct. 1, 1941
Conferees: Stalin, Harriman, Beaverbrook.
Main result: Allied aid to Russia systematized.

Beaverbrook, Harriman, Eden, Maisky in London,
from ILN of 1941/09/20

Washington (ARCADIA), Dec. 22, 1941-Jan. 14, 1942.
Conferees: Churchill, Roosevelt.
Main results: Agreement to follow Churchill's "Europe first" strategy; postpone Pacific response; Declaration of the United Nations

Churchill meets FDR for ARCADIA,
from ILN of 1942/01/10 and 1 and 2

Washington (2nd), June 20-25, 1942.
Conferees: Churchill, Roosevelt.

Churchill flew to the United States June 18, landed at Anacostia Naval Air Base June 19, then by Navy plane to the New Hackensack airport near Hyde Park, NY; met June 20 with FDR at his Hyde Park home, agreed to give higher priority to the peripheral strategy than to a cross-channel invasion, agreed to share "as equal partners" the research needed for the development of the A-bomb. On June 21, both leaders went by train to Washington, DC, learned of defeat at Tobruk. Roosevelt turned to Churchill and said "What can we do to help?" Churchill went by train June 23 to Camp Jackson SC, watched a parachute jump, returned to DC June 25 and took his flying boat back to England to face a censure vote in Parliament.

Main result: Peripheral strategy first priority; cross-channel invasion second priority; see Churchill or Stalin?

Churchill and Roosevelt
from Life, 1942

Casablanca (SYMBOL), Jan. 14-24, 1943.
Conferees: Churchill, Roosevelt.
Main results: Plans for invasion of Sicily and Italy; decision to invade France in 1944; demand for "unconditional surrender" of Axis; see Victory in Tunesia

Charles de Gaulle and Henri Giraud shake hands at Casablanca
from ILN of 1943/02/06

Washington (TRIDENT), May 12-27, 1943.
Conferees: Churchill, Roosevelt.
Main result: Plans set for invasion of Italy, stepped-up Pacific war, increased air attacks on Germany; see Road to Messina

Churchill speaks to US Congress in front of VP
Henry Wallace and Speaker Sam Rayburn
from ILN of 1943/06/12 - and 1

Quebec (QUADRANT), Aug. 17-24, 1943.
Conferees: Churchill, Roosevelt.
Main results: D-Day Set for May 1, 1944; Southeast Asia command reorganized for war on Japan; Gilberts and Marshalls set as first objectives in central Pacific offensive; see Stalemate in Italy

FDR, Churchill at Quebec Conference 1943,
from FDRL

Moscow, Oct. 18-Nov. 1, 1943.
Conferees: Foreign ministers Hull, Eden, Molotov.
Main result: Tentative plans for cooperation in postwar Europe: Joint 4-Power Declaration includes China; Gen. Hurley sent to Chungking to invite Chiang-Kai-shek to a meeting at Cairo.

Stalin at Moscow Foreign Ministers Conference,
from Newsweek cover, 10/25/43

Cairo (SEXTANT), Nov. 23-26, 1943.
Conferees: Churchill, Roosevelt, Chiang Kai-shek:
Main results: Agreement on military operations in China against Japanese; promise of postwar return of Manchuria to China and of freedom for Korea; see Cairo bulletin and Burma 1944

FDR, Churchill, Chiang Kai-shek, Mdm. Chiang,
from ILN, 1943/12/11 - also 1 and 2

Teheran (EUREKA), Nov. 28-Dec. 1, 1943.
Conferees: Churchill, Roosevelt, Stalin.
Main result: Plans for two-front war against Germany, for later Russian participation in war against Japan, and for postwar cooperation; see Teheran and New Approaches and 3-Power Declaration

FDR holds Stalingrad Sword presented to Stalin
at Teheran, from Newsweek, 12/20/43

2nd Cairo, Dec. 4-6, 1943.
Conferees: Churchill, Roosevelt, Ismet Inonu.
Main results: Anakim postponed, Ike command.

Inonu of Turkey ,
from ILN of 1943/12/18

Bretton Woods, July 1-15, 1944.
Conferees: delegates of forty-four nations.
Main result: Establishment of International Monetary Fund and Bank

Bretton Woods conference to create United Nations,
from United Nations 50th anniversary

Dumbarton Oaks, Aug. 21-29, 1944.
Conferees: Stettinius, Cadogan, Gromyko.
Main result: Agreement on establishment of U.N., disagreement on veto in Security Council.

Edward Stettinius,
from ILN of 1944/12/09

Quebec (OCTAGON), Sept. 12-16, 1944.
Conferees: Churchill, Roosevelt, King at Frontenac Hotel
Main results: Broad plans for global war; FDR agreed to Churchill plan for Greece and Istrian attack, due to fear of Russia in Balkans; FDR agreed to continue Lend-Lease to Churchill to rebuild Britain's economy; tentative agreement on Morgenthau Plan for postwar Germany; FDR decided that U.S. troops would occupy SW Germany and Brit. troops in NW Germany; FDR still unwilling to recognize De Gaulle.

see War of Attrition 1944

Churchill oil portrait,
from ILN of 1943/12/11

Yalta (ARGONAUT), Feb. 4-11, 1945.
Conferees: Churchill, Roosevelt, Stalin.
Main results: Plans for dealing with defeat of Germany; policy for postwar Europe; agreement on forming a United Nations organization; agreement on conditions under which Russia would enter war against Japan; see Defeat of Germany and Crimea Communique

FDR, Churchill and Stalin at Yalta 1945,
from FDRL

San Francisco, April 25-June 26, 1945.
Conferees: Delegates from forty-six nations.

Main result: Adoption of the United Nations Charter.

Egypt signs UN Charter at San Francisco,,
from UN 50th anniversary

Potsdam (TERMINAL), July 17-Aug. 2, 1945.
Conferees: Truman, Stalin, Churchill (Attlee after British election).
Main results: Potsdam Declaration demanding Japanese surrender; agreement on principles governing treatment of Germany.

Truman announces Japan's surrender,
from Patch-NA 1945/08/14


Conferences text only | Timeline start | Links | Pictures | Maps | Documents | Bibliography | revised 12/10/02